One of the reasons that the Incas were such a successful empire was that they had a very organized government system. Pachacuti was the emperor who recognized that in order to become a great empire they needed a stable government. He converted to a new government system known as Tahuantinsuyu which consisted of a federal system and four provincial governments. The head of the federal system was the Sapa Inca who was believed to be a descendant of the sun god. He was greatly respected by everybody in the empire. The empire was divided into four regions which were controlled by men called Opas. Below the Opas were Inca noblemen who controlled the provincial governments. Just under the Inca noble- men were curacas, but these men were not necessarily Incas. When the Incas conquered a different people, they took the leaders' sons and taught them how to lead in the Inca system; these were the curacas.
Pachacuti was the ninth emperor of the Inca empire. It is estimated he was born in 1438. He established the government system of Tahuantinsuyu which is one of the reasons that the Inca empire was such a stable government. Many archaeologists believe the mountain-top city of Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti. Some believe he is the greatest emperor that the Inca empire ever had. He died around 1471.
Huayna was the eleventh emperor of the Inca empire. It is estimated he was born in 1493. Huayna extended the empire significantly to the south into present day Chile and to the north reaching all the way to modern day Ecuador. The empire reached its maximum size and power under his rule. Other than expanding the empire he improved the lives of the empire's people, building storehouses, temples, and improving the road system. Huayna died in 1527. Some think the cause was smallpox but that is debated.
Huascar was the successor of his father Huayna Capac. He was born in born in 1503. In the Inca empire there was always a set amount of land dedicated towards the sun god. Huascar took these lands and used them for himself. This sparked a civil war between him and his brother, Atahualpa. After losing the war and being captured by Spaniards, he was killed in 1532.
Atahualpa was the last emperor of the Inca empire before the Spanish invaded. He was born in 1497. Atahualpa became emperor after defeating his older brother in a civil war caused by the death of their father, Huayna Capac. During the Spanish invasion, Atahualpa was captured and used by the Spaniards to control the empire. When he was no longer needed, they executed him in 1533.
Manco Inca was born in 1516 and was another son of Huayna Capac. He was a puppet of the Spaniards and did all that Francisco Pizarro wanted. At first he cooperated with them, giving them gifts. But when Pizarro went on an exploration trip, Manco Inca was treated so badly by Pizarro's brothers (who Pizarro left in charge), that he tried to escape. He was captured and imprisoned for two months. They eventually freed him after two months on request of the Inca people. He led a revolt against the Spaniards but was defeated and killed in 1544.